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style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;"> <b>1?nbsp; </b><b>开启式超高压设?span></span></b> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 固体和包装物料的超高压加工需用开启式超高压设备,以便超高压加工时装填物料。开启式超高压设备主要有立式(图<span>1</span>)和卧式(图<span>2</span>)两种不同的结构?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095454_2707.png" alt="" width="350" height="467" title="" align="" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>1</span>中国华泰森淼公司生产的立式超高压设备<span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="349" height="235" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095522_1792.png" alt="卧式设备" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;text-indent:21.0pt;"> ?span>2 </span>西班?span>NC</span>公司生产的卧式超高压设备<span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 卧式结构的优点是:设备高度低,适合于高度较低的厂房,操作高度适宜,便于与生产线的其他设备连接。由于卧式的超高压容器长度可以加长,相对可以减小容器直径,因此可以大幅度降低框架的轴向力,并降低制造成本。缺点是占地较大,设备内腔有导轨,占用了一些空间,加上筐蓝上部空隙较大,空间有效利用率较低(图<span>3</span>),操作时每次开启端盖都需要将介质排出,下一个工作循环再将介质注入,辅助时间较长,影响生产效率?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;text-indent:5.25pt;"> <img width="362" height="260" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095531_7108.png" alt="卧式设备装填? /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>3 </span>卧式筐蓝及导?</p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 立式超高压设备容积利用率高,由于无需反复进液排液,缩短了辅助时间,如果加上机械手装填物料(图<span>4</span>),生产效率更高。立式设备占地面积小,但是设备和操作高度都较高,需要搭建操作台。为了降低设备高?span>,</span>立式设备的超高压容器内径一般设计较大,虽然会增加了设备制造成本,但是它能提高容器的有效利用率和生产效率?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="345" height="272" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095547_2952.png" alt="DSCN5029" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>4 </span>日本越後制菓公司立式超高压设备装填物料的机械?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal">     </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:15.75pt;">  1.1立式结构和卧式结构空间利用率的对?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal">     立式结构和卧式结构空间利用率相差较大,这里以<span>600MPa</span>?span>200</span>升的超高压设备为例,进行超高压容器空间有效利用率的对比。假设卧式结构装料筐篮进出的导论直径?span>40mm</span>,筐篮与容器的间隙为<span>20mm</span>,筐篮装料时一般上部会留有<span>30mm</span>的空隙;立式结构筐篮与容器的间隙?span>15mm</span>,装料时筐篮上部留有<span>30mm</span>的空隙。结果表明,在容积和直径相同的条件下,立式超高压设备的装料处理量和空间利用率明显大于卧式超高压设备。如?span>1</span>和图<span>5 </span>所示,随着直径的减小,这种差别越来越大。如?span>200</span>升超高压容器的内径为<span>250mm</span>,立式结构的空间利用率为<span>769%</span>(约<span>154</span>升),卧式结构的利用率为<span>55.4%</span>?span>111</span>升)?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>1200<span><span>?/span></span><span>超高压设备容器内径尺寸对两种结构</span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> 空间有效利用率的影响<span></span> </p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="border:none;margin:0 auto;"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">编号<span></span></span> </p> </td> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">容器内径<span>mm</span></span> </p> </td> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">卧式<span> %</span></span> </p> </td> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">立式<span> %</span></span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">1</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">150</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.317</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.638</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">2</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">200</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.459</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.719</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">3</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">250</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.554</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0769</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">4</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">300</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.621</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0801</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">5</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">350</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0671</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.824</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">6</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">400</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">071</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.84</span> </p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142" valign="top" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">7</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">450</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">0.74</span> </p> </td> <td width="142" style="border:solid windowtext 1.0pt;"> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <span style="font-family:方正黑体简?">085</span> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;">   </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="339" height="212" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095713_8442.png" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>5 </span>容器直径对空间利用率的影?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ■:立式超高压设备;◆:卧式超高压设?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="341" height="117" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095732_2834.png" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>6 </span>立式和卧式设备超高压处理工序节拍示意?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="left" style="text-indent:18pt;"> 注:纵坐标为压力<span>,</span>横坐标为时间。超高压处理时,立式设备?span>3</span>个工步,即:升压—保压—泄压;卧式设备?span>5</span>个工步,即:充液—升压—保压—泄压—排液?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:28.5pt;"> 1.2立式结构和卧式结构有效处理时间的对比<span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:28.5pt;"> 立式结构超高压设备加压介质不必排出,可以反复使用。卧式超高压设备如图<span>6</span>所示,每次加工工序都需要充液—排液过程,增加了两个工步,延长了辅助时间,影响生产效率。假设充液—排液占整体高压加工工序所用时间的<span>15%</span>,如果与空间利用率的差别叠加起来,则生产效率出现明显的落差?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="left" style="text-indent:28.5pt;">   </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="left" style="text-indent:28.5pt;"> 1.3容器内径对超高压设备框架受力的影?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:28.5pt;"> 由表<span>1</span>和图<span>5</span>可知,在容积相同的情况下,容器内径越大,空间的有效利用率就越高,但是直径越大,相对容器的重量就越重,框架受到的轴向力就越大,其影响不是线性的而是呈指数曲线,因此会大幅度影响设备的材料消耗、加工难度和设备成本。以<span>600MPa</span>?span>200</span>升超高压设备为例,直径对框架受力的影响如?span>7</span>所示,当内径为<span>150mm</span>时,框架轴向力为<span>1060</span>吨,<span>300mm</span>时为<span>4241</span>吨,<span>450mm</span>时为<span>9452</span>吨。可以看出,增加超高压容器内径,有利于提高空间利用率,但它是以大幅度提高框架强度、材料消耗和制造成本为代价的。因此,在确定内径尺寸时要综合考虑各种因素的影响?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="338" height="141" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095744_8726.png" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> ?span>7 </span>内径对框架轴向力的影?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> 注:横坐标为内径编号,数字分别代表:<span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> 1?span>150mm</span>?span>2</span>?span>200mm</span>?span>3</span>?span>250mm</span>?span>4</span>?span>300mm</span>?span>5</span>?span>350mm</span>?span>6</span>?span>400mm</span>?span>7</span>?span>450mm</span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:28.5pt;">   </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;"> <b>2?nbsp;   </b><b>封闭式超高压设备<span></span></b> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:27.75pt;"> 对于果汁、牛奶、酒等流体材料的超高压灭菌,有两种不同的工艺。一种是包装后灭菌,另一种是灭菌后无菌包装。前者的优点是没有二次污染,但是要求超高压设备必须是开启式。后者超高压处理后容易二次污染,必须采用无菌灌装。但是,后者可以采用封闭式的超高压设备?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:27.75pt;"> 封闭式结构可以利用物料本身作为介质进行超高压灭菌处理,同时能实现半连续或准连续式加工。封闭式超高压设备无需端盖开?span>,</span>可以省去框架,结构简?span>,</span>成本?span>,</span>便于与其它生产设备对接?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:27.75pt;"> 封闭式超高压设备的物料通过管道充满超高压容器内腔,没有包装物及其之间的空隙,空间利用率较高。另外,随着压力的升高,容器内的物料被压缩,因此?span>100MPa</span>可以增加?span>3%</span>的液体,例如达到<span>600MPa</span>时,实际处理的液体物料可以达到容器内腔的<span>118%,</span>因而生产效率比较高?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 浮动活塞往复加压封闭式超高压设备加工效率更?span>(</span>?span>8)</span>。该结构的超高压容器中设置一个浮动活?span>,</span> 一端进液的同时,另一端完成排液,即将充液和强制排液合并成一道工步完?span>,</span>缩短辅助时间,提高了生产效率?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;"> <img width="392" height="238" src="/uploads/image/20161208/20161208095756_4947.png" /> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="text-align:center;">    ?span>8 </span>浮动活塞往复加压封闭式超高压设?span> </span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal">   </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;"> <b>3?nbsp;   </b><b>钢丝缠绕结构的优?span></span></b> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:27.75pt;"> 钢丝缠绕框架和钢丝缠绕超高压容器是大型超高压设备最具优势的结构。钢丝缠绕的优点:①承载能力高。由于框架为剖分结构,不存在整体结构的应力集中,同时钢丝受力均匀,安全系数可以取得小些,使得框架大幅度缩小体积、降低重量,减少材料消耗和加工成本;②疲劳强度高。钢丝缠绕预应力结构的载荷波动小,在加压时,无论是框架还是超高压容器,结构件从受拉力变成了受压力,材料的抗压强度一般都是抗拉强度的几倍,充分发挥了材料的强度潜力,疲劳极限提高一倍以上;③安全性高。这对于超高压容器来说是最重要的优点。钢丝缠绕本身就是安全的保护层,如果一旦超高压缸筒开裂,只会产生泄漏,不会发生恶性事故。因为若干层钢丝不可能在同一瞬间,在同一断面断裂,未断的钢丝层,仍有保护作用。即便是内层多处钢丝同时断裂,只要外层钢丝保持完好,依靠钢丝间的摩擦力,断裂也不会扩展,因此非常安全?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt;"> <b>4?nbsp; </b><b>关于超高压缸筒材?span></span></b> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 生物食品用超高压设备一般都采用水作为加压介质,因此要求超高压容器等部件必须采用不锈钢材料,这不仅是被加工材料和食品机械的基本要求,也是超高压设备本身的强度需要?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent:21.0pt;"> 如果不采用不锈钢材料,一旦超高压容器内壁产生锈蚀,将会引起应力集中,在加压、泄压的超高压力反复作用下,容易产生疲劳裂纹,并迅速扩张,造成超高压容器开裂?span></span> </p> <p class="MsoNormal"> <span> </span> </p></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="66ov23rl" 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