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升压阶段:压力在几分钟内(一般小? min)迅速由常压升为几百兆帕,固体组织细胞内外形成了超高的压力差,提取溶剂在超高压力推动下迅速渗透到植物内部维管束和腺细胞内。随着压力迅速升高,细胞体积被压缩,如果超过其形变极限,会导致细胞破裂,细胞内的物质与溶剂接触被溶解;如果没有超过细胞的形变极限,提取溶剂在高压作用下,进入植物细胞内,有效成分溶解在提取溶剂中?</p> <p style="text-align:center;"> <img src="/uploads/image/20191225/20191225091900_0156.jpg" alt="" /> </p>       保压阶段:超高压力引起体系的体积变化,推动了化学平衡的移动,溶剂的渗透、溶质的溶解快速达到平衡。因此保压阶段时间很短,一般几分钟之内即可完成。卸压阶段:卸压一般在几秒钟之内即可完成(一般卸压时间<2s),组织细胞的压力从几百兆帕的超高压迅速减小为常压,在反方向压力作用下,发生流体以及药物基质体积的爆破膨胀,对细胞壁、细胞膜、质膜、核膜、液泡、微管等形成强烈的冲击致使发生变形?br />       如果变形超过了其变形极限,导致细胞结构出现松散、孔洞、破裂等结构变化,有效成分和溶剂充分接触,溶解了有效成分的溶液会向细胞外迅速扩散;如果在反方向压力作用下细胞壁的变形没有超过其变形极限(在高压作用下通透性增大),细胞内部已经溶解了有效成分的溶剂在高渗透压差下快速转移到细胞外,达到提取的目的?br />        在流体吸收外界施加的压缩能一定(压力一定)的情况下,卸压时间越短,细胞内流体在向外扩散的同时产生的冲击力越强,引起的湍动效应越强烈,形成的孔洞、碎片越多,一定质量的药物基质的有效比表面会越大,有效成分扩散的传质阻力就会越小、与溶剂接触也就会更充分,提取效率会更高?br /></p> </div> <div id="66ov23rl" class="newArtiNext mt10"><div>上一?<a href="189.html">食用菌灭菌器的工作流程是什?/a></div> <div>下一?<a href="187.html">超高压食品与健康有什么关?/a></div> </div> <div id="66ov23rl" class="tag">相关标签?/div> 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